The name română In the past, foreigners used to call it valahă Engl. Wallachisch, Ital. Frequent in medieval writings referring to Balkan Romania, these state organizations and grounds were called vlahii.
The speakers of the Meglenoromanian and Istroromanian dialects also appropriated the term vlah as an ethnic name. In older linguistic works, the term vlah in the broad sense is an equivalent of Romanian from both the North and the South of the Danube or in the narrow sense an equivalent of mountaineer.
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Incidentally, for political reasons in the former USSR Romanian spoken in the Moldavian Republic was considered a different language, knows as Moldavian. The family affiliation 1.
Origin Romanian is a Romance language. Romanian is a continuation of the Danubian or Balkanik Latin. Only Romance language is Eastern Europe.
No Romance language is phonetically identical with Latin. Conversely, no Latin word was preserved in all Romance languages without undergoing some formal change in at least one of these languages.
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The morphological structure of Romanian is almost entirely Latin. No Romanian sentence can be formed without the obligatory use of Latin elements, mainly represented by various prepositions and conjunctions, all inherited from Latin. Many similarities also exist, extending to details, between the pronominal systems transmitted to Romanian and to the other Romance languages. Numerals from 1 to 10 were preserved in all Romance languages.
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Finally, let us remark that some morphological facts of Latin origin are peculiar only to Romanian. A few are already outdated, for instance the nominal case inflection, which was reduced to three forms in the other Romance languages it was reduced to only one form much earlier.
Both archaisms and innovations in Romanian morphology, of which M am intalnit cu omul lui Vyrics have provided only a few examples, are inherited from Latin. The Latin syntactic system was also transmitted, in its essence, to Romance languages.
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However, Latin conjunctions expressing various coordination and subordination rapports underwent some changes. Their reorganization caused the loss of numerous classic Latin conjunctions. Romance languages, Romanian included, inherited a small number of Latin conjunctions. Only two coordinating copulative conjunctions are pan-Romanic et, see old Rom.
In addition to these pan-Romanic conjunctions, other Latin conjunctions were preserved in selected Romance languages. There are two syntactic peculiarities by which Romanian and other Romance languages differ from Latin: the expression of the direct object and the restatement of the direct or indirect object by a personal pronoun.
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Reinforcing the direct or indirect object by restating or anticipating it with a pronoun is sporadically present in the vulgar Latin. The phenomenon is more widespread in the Iberian-Romanic languages and in Romanian: Rom.
As opposed to other Romance languages which observe, though not very strictly, the sequence of tenses consecutio temporumthis feature is even less strict in Romanian, thereby allowing it a freer, simpler sentence, such as all languages with a predominantly oral, spoken character have. Each Romance language, Romanian included, inherited about the same number of Latin words approximately 2, Approximately of these words were transmitted to all Romance languages.
They are called pan-Romanic words. Terms referring to apparel, footwear, jewelry, nourishment, dwelling, sky and atmosphere, time, earth, flora, fauna; attributes of the outer world: agriculture, crafts, culture, society. Most pan-Romanic words refer to human beings parts of the body, sex, age, family, verbs denoting human activities.
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Most of the inherited words are those that were transmitted to Romanian as well as to a few other Romance languages from 2, 3 to 7. For instance, some words were preserved only in Romanian and the Iberian-Romance languages spoken in the areas south-west of Romania Rom. There are also words preserved only in Romanian and French Rom. Attempts have been made to explain why some of these words were preserved by pointing to the Romanian ways of life.
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A fact worth noticing is that, whereas Romanian adopted these words through popular usage, Western Romance languages subsequently borrowed from scholarly Latin the same words: Lat. Words inherited by Romanian from Latin allow a positive characterization of the Latin vocabulary inherited by Romanian.
Conversely, words preserved in all Romance languages except Romanian approximately help the negative characterization of the Latin vocabulary in Romanian. The explanations given to account for the disappearance of these words are varied. Most of these words were not preserved in Romanian due to extra-linguistic reasons, which had a profound influence upon the make-up of terminologies. As in the case of the vocabulary, there is a series of prefixes which were passed on to all Romance languages, including Romanian.
Pan-Romanic prefixes: Lat. Still, there are some prefixes in Romanian which were not preserved M am intalnit cu omul lui Vyrics other Romance languages: Lat. Pan-Romanic suffixes include collective suffixes denoting the idea of collectivity: Lat. In one respect Romanian is negatively distinguished from other Romance languages since it does not possess adverbial formations such as the It. The compounding system of classical Latin underwent very important changes in all Romance languages, including Romanian.
Substratum and superstratum a Substratum The substratum of Romanian is represented by the language of the autochtonous Romanised population: the Thraco -Dacian, an Indo-European satem language.
The autochthonous elements of the Romanian language represent — still — the least clarified domain of the history of this language. We cannot be sure about Intalnirea Femei din Africa Strasbourg single autochthonous element in Romanian. Some of the least unsure proof come from proper place names.
A fewer nouns, naming important bodies of water, are very old. The explanation lies in the fact than, from early Middle Ages on, Romanians were forced to leave their towns and to settle in villages sometimes located up in the mountains. The raids of migrating populations, especially those of the Hunscaused many damages; of the city in Dacia what remains today are most compact layers of ashes found in Transylvania.
The least unsure method than can be used to establish what words come from Thraco-dacian is the study of resemblances between these Romanian words and similar Albanian ones.
Starting from such similarities, researchers of the substratum established a number of about words regarded as certain words of the substratum, and other 40 considered as probable substratum words. It is worth mentioning that most of the words regarded as certain words of the substratum refer to relief waters, flora, fauna. Some of the autochthonous words abovementioned especially those referring to fauna can also be included in another category rich in autochthonous terms, namely the vocabulary of shepherds.
M am intalnit cu omul lui Vyrics, plants, land configurations are part of the traditional environment of cattle breeders, the basic occupation of Thraco-Dacians, practised by Romanians through centuries until today. The Thraco-Dacian influence becomes less sure in the domain of the sounds of Romanian language.
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Sounds like ă, h and ş, considered by some linguists to have been inherited from Thraco-Dacian, can also be found in other Romance languages ă and şor, if found only in Romanian ha more convincing explanation is the loan from Old Slavic In the domain of morphology, two singular facts have been explained as inherited from Thraco-Dacian: the postposition of the definite article and the way numerals from 11 to 19 are formed.
The latest hypotheses regarding this construction follow two directions: it may have appeared independently of the situation encountered in other languages, or it may be the result of transposing a similar substratum construction into Latin. The Slavs arrived in the Danube region and in the Balkan Peninsula in the 5th or 6th century. Attracted by the riches of the Byzantine Empire, they migrated in large numbers to the south of the Danube after the destruction of the defensive structures of the Roman Empire The Slavic states appeared and, from the 9th century on, the church that used Slavonic as its official language began to impose its influence on the Romanic element.
In front of massive invasion of the valleys and fields south of the Danube, part of the Romanized population, the ancestors of the present-day Macedoromanians, left the center of the Balkan Peninsula and headed south as far as the Pindus Mountains, Thessaly and Epirus.
Thus, the arrival and settling of the Slavs in the Balkan Peninsula broke the compact Romanic block of people who lived in the Latinophone provinces along the Danube Dacia, Lower M am intalnit cu omul lui Vyrics and Moesia Inferior and Superior.
In Dacia the number of the Slavs decreased as most Slavs headed south. Most obvious are the elements of vocabulary, which can be found in a wide range of onomasiologic fields. The evaluation of the Old Slavic elements in Romanian takes on a M am intalnit cu omul lui Vyrics dimension when the lexical units used by various Romance languages to express notions for which Romanian borrowed Old Slavic terms are examined.
These suffixes and prefixes were later on attached to Latin-inherited words or to words of other origins.
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Prefixes of this kind are not so numerous. In the domain of morphology, the least open to loans, certain linguistic facts inherited from Latin were probably reinforced by Old Slavic influences, which would explain the development of the neuter gender in Romanian. The distinctive features 1.
It is a middle vowel, more closed than [ ә]. The same vowel is graphically represented by î as well; the distribution of the two letters depends on their position in the word: â is only used inside words, never in initial or final position; e. Although vowels followed by consonants [ m], [ n] are nasalized, there are no nasal vowels proper, as in French or Portuguese.
Most words are stressed on the last and penultimate syllable, the stress placed nearer the end of the word being favored. Morphology Romanian is a highly inflected language; unlike other Romance languages, it has both rich verbal inflection as well as rich nominal and pronominal inflection.
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Inflectional endings are often associated with phonetic alternations in the root: sg. Adjectives qualifying and pronominalpronouns personal and nonpersonal and articles definite and indefinite have two genders: the masculine and the feminine; these classes of words inflect for number, case and gender.
Within nominal declension, the nominative is homonymous with the accusative often with the vocative as welland the genitive is homonymous with the dative. Case is morphologically marked on the determiners of nouns, in particular on the article. The definite article is enclitic fused with the noun as in Swedish, Bulgarian and Albaniansometimes replacing the inflectional ending: m.
The lexemes cel, cea, cei, cele, e. A procedat copilăreşte. Personal pronouns have suppletive case forms, e.
Other pronominal adjectives have different forms depending on their position: preposed acest e. The verb has a richly inflected paradigm, with different forms for the six persons. There are five personal moods: the indicative, the subjunctive formed with the conjunction săe.
There are numerous verbs with an obligatory reflexive pronoun, especially in the accusative, e.